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They move in short jumps and are excellent climbers. Selective pressures must have acted to increase the beech marten's bite force at the expense of gape. The head is gray, legs and tail are very dark brown or black, the chest has a cream colored patch, and the back is light brown. Of the mustelids, the Pine marten is the only one with semi-retractable claws. They are mainly nocturnal, living in places with plenty of cover, like edges of forests, rocky terrain, quarries and near human dwellings. Beech martens are carnivorous mammals of the Mustelidae family, gray-brown in color with a white ruff. The skull of the beech marten suggests a higher adaptation than the pine marten toward hypercarnivory, as indicated by its smaller head, shorter snout and its narrower post-orbital constriction and lesser emphasis on cheek teeth. Beech martens help to control the pest population of rats and mice in central Europe. Pine martens are believed to have come to Britain around 10,500 BCE, the end of the last ice age. A marten's fur is long and shiny. Selective pressures must have acted to increase the beech marten's bite force at the expense of gape. These animals weigh between 280 and 1,300 g. Females are slightly smaller and lighter than males. American martens measure 320 to 450 mm, with the tail adding 135 to 230 mm more. The American Marten (Martes Americana) is a small member of the weasels, and they are also known as "pine" martens, because they are similar in some ways with their European cousins.The fur of the American Marten is soft, their throats are light buff, and they have dark shaded tails/legs. ... Anti-predator Adaptations; cryptic; Known Predators. They believe that it can be explained by the different adaptations to the colder climate of north-eastern Polish. Beech martens are primarily solitary animals, with the exception of family groups (mothers and young) and mating interactions. "Pine marten occurs in the boreal forest and is better adapted to survive harsh winters with low temperatures than beech marten, which evolved in the subtropical forests of central Asia. The Pine marten’s name comes from where it lives: mainly coniferous forests such as pine forests. Selective pressures must have acted to increase the beech marten's bite force at the expense of gape. The skull of the beech marten suggests a higher adaptation than the pine marten toward hypercarnivory, as indicated by its smaller head, shorter snout and its narrower post-orbital constriction and lesser emphasis on cheek teeth. The tail acts as a counterbalance while moving swiftly along or between branches, aided by the fact that their bodies are less elongated than those of weasels. 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