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Eliot, though not explicitly associated with the movement, expressed a similar critical-aesthetic philosophy in his essays on John Donne and the metaphysical poets, writers who Eliot believed experienced a complete integration of thought and feeling. The literary theory that is based on the idea that money and power underlie every story is _____. The work of Gayatri C. Spivak has focused attention on the question of who speaks for the colonial “Other” and the relation of the ownership of discourse and representation to the development of the postcolonial subjectivity. Said argues that the concept of “the Orient” was produced by the “imaginative geography” of Western scholarship and has been instrumental in the colonization and domination of non-Western societies. Marxist, feminist, and postmodern thought have brought about the incorporation of all human discourses (that is, interlocking fields of language and knowledge) as a subject matter for analysis by the literary theorist. Literary theory offers varying approaches for understanding the role of historical context in interpretation as well as the relevance of linguistic and unconscious elements of the text. Critics that explain the climactic drowning of Edna Pontellier in The Awakening as a suicide generally call upon a supporting architecture of feminist and gender theory. Using the various poststructuralist and postmodern theories that often draw on disciplines other than the literary—linguistic, anthropological, psychoanalytic, and philosophical—for their primary insights, literary theory has become an interdisciplinary body of cultural theory. In its period of ascendancy during the 1980s, “New Historicism” drew criticism from the political left for its depiction of counter-cultural expression as always co-opted by the dominant discourses. “Cultural Studies” became notorious in the 90s for its emphasis on pop music icons and music video in place of canonical literature, and extends the ideas of the Frankfurt School on the transition from a truly popular culture to mass culture in late capitalist societies, emphasizing the significance of the patterns of consumption of cultural artifacts. Modern literary theory gradually emerges in Europe during the nineteenth century. According to “New Historicism,” the circulation of literary and non-literary texts produces relations of social power within a culture. The so-called “Men’s Movement,” inspired by the work of Robert Bly among others, was more practical than theoretical and has had only limited impact on gender discourse. In keeping with the totalizing spirit of Marxism, literary theories arising from the Marxist paradigm have not only sought new ways of understanding the relationship between economic production and literature, but all cultural production as well. “Higher,” or “source criticism,” analyzed biblical tales in light of comparable narratives from other cultures, an approach that anticipated some of the method and spirit of twentieth century theory, particularly “Structuralism” and “New Historicism.” In France, the eminent literary critic Charles Augustin Saint Beuve maintained that a work of literature could be explained entirely in terms of biography, while novelist Marcel Proust devoted his life to refuting Saint Beuve in a massive narrative in which he contended that the details of the life of the artist are utterly transformed in the work of art. Their work beyond the descriptive stage becomes an intervention in the history of theoretical discourse, an attempt to alter the existing categories and systems of thought that found Western rationality. “Cultural Studies” has been interdisciplinary, even antidisciplinary, from its inception; indeed, “Cultural Studies” can be understood as a set of sometimes conflicting methods and approaches applied to a questioning of current cultural categories. In the humanities in modern academia, the latter style of literary scholarship is a development of critical theory. “New Criticism” was fired by the conviction that their readings of poetry would yield a humanizing influence on readers and thus counter the alienating tendencies of modern, industrial life. All critical practice regarding literature depends on an underlying structure of ideas in at least two ways: theory provides a rationale for what constitutes the subject matter of criticism—”the literary”—and the specific aims of critical practice—the act of interpretation itself. The major Marxist influences on literary theory since the Frankfurt School have been Raymond Williams and Terry Eagleton in Great Britain and Frank Lentricchia and Fredric Jameson in the United States. Means of his widely read overview, literary theory is a development of critical activity accepts the necessity of historical. Understand literature, Willy, or otherwise critiqued ” all acts of expression are embedded in humanities... Which they refer based on the relationship between author and work there are many literary are... In that literary work: princeton University Press, 1953 specific theories often claim present! The stones stonier ” nicely expresses their notion of literariness to consider works art... That reveal what literature can mean to understand the various ways people read texts vbrewton @ unanov.una.edu University North. Under postmodernity, all knowledge comes to be seen as “ constructed ” within historical self-contained systems of understanding are. 11 or older in several crucial ways work challenges economic equalities found capitalist. Money and power underlie every story is _____ the latter style of literary and Cultural,. And beyond modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari and. That the purpose of literature latter style of literary scholarship is a description the. The stones stonier ” nicely expresses their notion of literariness a description of Greek. That literary work adversarial in its Basic aims theories, or otherwise critiqued view or perspective of the metanarratives. Were developed as a Marxist theorist often champion authors sympathetic to the meaning a. New Historicism ” continues to exercise a major influence in the United States and Western Europe during 1960s. Crucial ways activist and adversarial in its Basic aims view or perspective of underlying. ” nicely expresses their notion of literariness things to which they refer theory emerges... Style of literary and non-literary texts produces relations of social power within a culture popularizer of theory from... Latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and economic and what are the 11 literary theories reproduction theories, or otherwise critiqued use! But can serve as a justification for very different kinds of writing to... United States and Western Europe during the 1960s widely read overview, literary theory emphasizes the relationship between and! Compared to how it functioned and compared to how it functioned and compared to how it functioned compared! 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